VOLCANOES All you need to know

How Volcanoes forms

Volcanoes form when magma, which is molten rock, rises to the surface of the Earth. This can happen in several ways, but one of the most common is when tectonic plates move apart or collide.

When tectonic plates move apart, magma rises up through the gap between them and can eventually form a volcano. This type of volcano is known as a "shield" volcano and is often found along the mid-ocean ridges, where tectonic plates are spreading apart.

When tectonic plates collide, one plate can be pushed under the other and forced down into the Earth's mantle, where it can melt and form magma. The magma then rises up through the overlying plate, forming a volcano. This type of volcano is known as a "subduction zone" volcano and is often found at the boundaries between tectonic plates.

 Another way that volcanoes can form is through hot spots, which are areas of the Earth's mantle where there is a lot of heat and magma. As tectonic plates move over these hot spots, they can form a chain of volcanoes, such as the Hawaiian Islands.

Once a volcano has formed, it can erupt and release lava, ash, and other materials. These eruptions can be explosive or relatively calm, depending on the type of volcano and the properties of the magma.

Ancestors about Volcanoes

The beliefs and understanding of volcanoes varied among different ancestral cultures throughout history. Here are some examples:

·        Ancient Greeks believed that the god Hephaestus, the god of fire and metallurgy, had his forge located underneath Mount Etna in Sicily, Italy. They also believed that the Cyclops, one-eyed giants, had their home inside the volcano.

·        The ancient Romans believed that volcanoes were the vents of the god Vulcan's forge, and that the eruptions were caused by the god's anger.

·        In Hawaiian mythology, Pele is the goddess of fire, lightning, wind, and volcanoes. She is said to reside in Kilauea, one of the most active volcanoes in the world.

·        The ancient Mayans believed that volcanoes were the result of a battle between gods. They thought that the god of death, Ah Puch, and the god of water, Chac, had a fight that caused the eruption of a volcano.

·        The ancient Egyptians believed that the god of fire and chaos, Seth, lived in a fiery mountain, which some scholars believe was a reference to a volcano.

·        In Japanese mythology, Mount Fuji is considered a sacred site and is believed to be the home of a goddess named Konohana Sakuya-hime.

Overall, many ancestral cultures attributed volcanic activity to the actions of deities or other supernatural forces. They viewed volcanoes as powerful and potentially dangerous, and often incorporated them into their myths and legends.

Active Volcanoes around the world

There are currently around 1,500 active volcanoes in the world. However, most of them are located in remote areas, and only a few of them are located near cities.

Some cities that are located near active volcanoes include:

  1. Naples, Italy - near Mount Vesuvius
  2. Mexico City, Mexico - near Popocatepetl volcano
  3. Quito, Ecuador - near Cotopaxi volcano
  4. Anchorage, Alaska - near Mount Redoubt and Mount Spurr
  5. Tokyo, Japan - near Mount Fuji and Mount Asama
  6. Managua, Nicaragua - near Momotombo volcano
  7. Guatemala City, Guatemala - near Fuego and Pacaya volcanoes
  8. San Salvador, El Salvador - near San Salvador volcano

As for countries with the most active volcanoes, Indonesia has the highest number with over 130 active volcanoes. Other countries with a significant number of active volcanoes include Japan, the Philippines, Chile, and Ethiopia.



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